Artist: Gigadō Ashiyuki (戯画堂芦ゆき)

Print: Arashi Rikan II as Miyamoto Musashi in the snow in the play Katakiuchi Nitō Eiyuki [復讐二島英雄記]

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Dates: 1832,created
Dimensions: 9.75 in,14.5 in,Overall dimensions
Medium: Japanese color woodblock print

Signed: Gigadō Ashiyuki ga
Publisher: Izutsuya Denbei (Marks 186 - seal 07-030)

Related links: Metropolitan Museum of Art; Hankyu Culture Foundation;

Physical description:

Osaka Prints wrote of an earlier edition of this print:


The play Katakiuchi nitô no eiyûki (A tale of revenge and great courage on two islands: 復讐二島英勇記) was based on the historical Miyamoto Musashi (c. 1584-1645; 宮本 武蔵), whose name meant "Storehouse of military knowledge." Also an author, Musashi wrote Gorin no sho (The Book of Five Rings: 五輪書), a treatise on military tactics, strategy, and philosophy. He was a legendary swordsman and the son of the celebrated fencing master Yoshioka Tarozaemon, a retainer of the Ashikaga shôgun Yoshiteru. Musashi was a bold and reputedly reckless adventurer, although he survived armed combat more than 60 times and died a natural death. Katakiuchi nitô no eiyûki was one of many popular tales of vengeance and retribution, an example of the theatrical genre of "revenge plays" called katakiuchi mono (敵討物) or adauchi mono (仇打ち物). In one such incident, Musashi avenged the murder of his father by despatching his killer with a wooden sword, a lethal weapon in the hands of a master swordsman. Musashi's exploits took him into the mountains during winter, when he is often depicted, as in Ashiyuki's design, carrying or wearing a straw hat and padded jacket.


The Kabuki nenpyô... mentions that in one scene, Rikan exited the main stage by walking down the hanamichi, and when half-way down he gestured as if descending into a valley. That is the same scene shown here in Ashiyuki's design. This is also the moment shortly before Musashi encounters Kasahara Rôô (the legendary fencing master Kasawara Bokuden), from whom he will learn advanced fighting techniques.

The poems are signed by Rikkaen and Rikan, respectively, reading:

Na no hana ni / hikkurumetaru / sekai kana
(The whole world is covered / by the yellow flowers / of the rapeseed).
Yuku michi o / saguri ashi nari / oborotsuki
(Walking along the path, / I feel my way with my feet, / night of the veiled moon).

This is one of the most admired works by Ashiyuki and is much sought after by collectors. This impression has the hand-stamped seals of two publishers, Honsei (Honya Seishichi) and Kawaji — a joint production that appears to have preceded a slightly later edition from Iden (Izutsuya Denbei 井筒屋傳兵衞...). Moreover, the hand-stamped seal of the distinguished block carver Yama Kasuke in the lower left corner adds further cachet to this design, signaling an early impression.


Dean Schwaab in Osaka Prints, p. 154, says:

"This print gives neither actor nor role. It is very delicately but clearly printed, with the grass cloak in gauffrage and the dark robes richly overprinted with metallic brocade patterns. The quiet, softly shaded snowscape, with the hint of spring in the running water and bird, perfectly offsets the foreground figure. The poems are written in silver and seem to fade into the snow. They celebrate the spring season."


It should be noted that the example of this print in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum shows the same publisher's seal as the one in the Lyon Collection, but slightly to the right.



1) In Ikeda Bunko, Kamigata yakusha-e shūsei (Collected Kamigata Actor Prints), vol. 1, Osaka, 1998, no. 301.

2) In color in Ukiyo-e Masterpieces in European Collections: Musées Royaux d'Art et d'Histoire, Brussels, vol. 9, Kodansha, 1989, #245.